Basic Word Grammar in Pravic

The grammar of Pravic is simple. It is based around word roots which have noun meanings, but which can also have verb, adjective, adverb, and other meanings. So Pon means a real thing and, as a verb root, to have existence. The suffix indicates which word-type the root represents. No suffix or -i indicate a noun; -a, -e or -o indicate a verb.

 

The noun root can also become an adjective with a suffix of -y, and an adverb with a suffix of -u. So Pony means real (adjective), and Ponu means in a real way (adverb).

 

Noun Prefixes and Suffixes

In Pravic, as in English, nouns can be singular or plural and definite or indefinite. However, in English the definite and indefinite are indicated by word articles (a and the), in Pravic they are indicated by prefixes to the noun. The four forms are:

 

Definite

Indefinite

Singular

The real thing (aPon)

A real thing (Pon)

Plural

The real thing (aPoni)

A real thing (Poni)

 

Verb Suffixes

Suffixes on verbs indicate tense, as follows:

 

Definite forms

Modal forms

-e = present tense (is xing)

-yme = present tense (may be xing)

-a = past tense (xed)

-yma = past tense (may have xed)

-o = future tense (will x)

-ymo = future tense (may be going to x)

-oda = past in future (will have xed)

-ymoda = past in future (may be going to have xed)

-odo = future in future (will be going to x)

-ymodo = future in future (perhaps will be going to x)

-ado = future in past (was going to x)

-ymado = future in past (may have been going to x)

-ada = past in past (had xed)

-ymada = past in past (perhaps had xed)

 

General Prefixes

Word meanings can be changed using a range of prefixes, which apply to all word types. They always occur in the same order: a negator prefix, then adpositional prefixes, then number prefixes, then the foreign word marker, then the root.

 

Negators

ma-, mi- and mo- can be added to any word type. mi- is the strongest negator (opposite of x), ma- is the weakest (not x), mo- is in the middle (unlike x).

 

Adpositions

Pravic has a range of adpositional prefixes. A list of them is given here.

 

Numbers

Counted things can have the number as a separate adjectival, or prefixed onto the root; e.g. the two sides can be aneLemi or aLemi Nesy (note that aLem Nesy means the second side). Numbers of more than two digits tend to be adjectival; e.g. the 248 trees is usually aHolumi Nenovaty, not anenovaHolumi. The numbers are given here.

 

Foreign Word Marker

Like any language, Pravic borrows terms from other languages. However, as these terms may well contain meanings which do not fit with the cultural mappings of Pravic, foreign words are marked with a prefix go, or gog if the foreign word begins with a vowel. So the Terran word acre (a measure of area) would be rendered as gogAkar. The insult propertarian is rendered as gogArriks, where aeruis is the A-Io word for owner.

 

Words can be formed using this simple map:

 

 

Pronominal Nouns

While pronouns are not a formal part of Pravic, there is a set of nouns which act in a pronominal role. These are:

 

Pravic

Meaning

Number

Person

Description

KSotrekv

a speaker or writer; the sender

Singular

First

 

aSeln

The listener or reader; the receiver

Singular

Second

 

aTRul

The unknown object of attention

Singular

Third

Unknown thing

aTRum

The known object of attention

Singular

Third

Known thing

aTRuz

The unknown person of attention

Singular

Third

Unknown person

aTRuv

The known person of attention

Singular

Third

Known person

aSeksot

The sender and receiver

Plural

First

Singular inclusive

aSeksoti

The sender, receiver & others

Plural

First

Plural inclusive

aKSot

The sender and one other, not receiver

Plural

First

Singular exclusive

aKSoti

The sender and others, not receiver

Plural

First

Plural exclusive

aTHathiv

Everyone

Plural

First

Universal

aSelni

Listeners or readers

Plural

Second

 

aTRuli

Unknown objects of attention

Plural

Third

Unknown things

aTRumi

Known objects of attention

Plural

Third

Known things

aTRuzi

Unknown people of attention

Plural

Third

Unknown people

aTRuvi

Known people of attention

Plural

Third

Known people

aTRusk

The self (used in reflexives)

Singular

All

Subject and object are the same; e.g. The-self is-washed-by John

aTRuski

The selves (used in reflexives)

Plural

All

 

 

KSotrekv is deliberately complex, both phonologically and in construction, to make it difficult for children to use. It is a mark of social self-effacement to pronounce the word correctly but slowly, as if it is not a normal part of your vocabulary. When referring to yourself, it is always KSotrekv (a speaker). When referring to others as speakers it is usually aKSotrevok (the one who speaks) or aKSotrekv (the previous speaker).

 

Asking Questions

Questions have the same form as statements, but are spoken with a rising inflection at the end. They also often use the modal form of the verb.